Lazariev F. V. To the problem of environmental culture in the modern era
Ilyanovich E.B. Cultural Contradictions of technological progress
Mikitinets A. Y. The border as a concept of cultural anthropology
Abrashkevichus G.O. Influence of social and cultural interaction on issues of identity
Kuzmin N. N. Social space and the interaction of cultures
Gabrielyan O. A. The Crimean project through dialogue of cultures
Romadykina V.S. Metatext of culture in the context of artistic consciousness. Axiological aspect of the problem
Mikitenets O. I. Chronotope characteristics of the symbolical space of culture
Shendrikova S.P. Crimean period and its role in the formation of the great Russian actress Maria Nikolaevna Yermolova
Fiodorov I. V. The phenomenon of degeneracy as significant aspect of axiomatic anthropological crisis of modern technogenic society
Donskaya E.V. Movement as a method of artistic synthesis and its representation in the works of the Silver Age
Minina O.M. Etnochoreological research of traditional folk dance ethnic culture of Bulgarians in Ukraine
Blizniakov R. A., Malyshev D. A. Storage problems of fund collections of Crimean antiquities museums
Somov M.V. Analysis of communication in the museum’s sphere in the context of a systematic-structural approach
Osmanova E.E. Problems in the study of religious buildings in Bakhchisaray at the end of ХVIII and at the beginning of ХХ centuries
Molochko E. V. Cave cities of Crimea as an object of study and protection of historical and cultural heritage (based on the notes of E. L. Markova)
F. V. Lazarev
To the problem of environmental culture in the modern era
The article is devoted to the analysis of onthologic and epistemologic aspects of culture. The article also concerns the project of strategy of cultural development in the present period, which characterised by the distribution of market relations on all spheres of public life. The author puts emphasis on the necessity of preservation and revival of cultural heritage in its forms.
Key words: culture, sense, strategy, commercialization, the market.
Culture as a way to update the flow of life. The meaning of culture can be seen in the specific type of inversion of aims and means: in its contribute to alter the means into the goals. This essential feature of culture is manifested, primarily, in its non-use. The focus of culture on the transformation of everything that is touched (by culture), that falls under its light, in the intrinsic value may seem mysterious (especially under the rule of the spirit of pragmatism). But the inner meaning of this phenomenon lies in the fact that the culture highlights any moment of the individual human existence and turns this moment, this situation of the given empirical existence of "here" and "now" into the continuing current existence, making it the most complete and focused, from the point of view of self-worth of each particular moment of the human life. As a result, everything that is met on the way of the human spirit turns from relative into absolute, from imperfect into perfect, from the unauthentic into authentic. In this process, there is nothing small, unworthy of attention, sudden, unnecessary. Here, every detail is as important as the unit itself. There is no difference between the important and trifle, this is the nature of creativity: in the creative impulse every real master imitates the creator himself:
Ты спросишь, кто велит,
Чтоб август был велик,
Кому ничто не мелко,
Кто погружен в отделку
И с дней Эклизиаста
Не покидал поста
За теской алебастра?
One can say: the process of actualization of the life flow begins from the point when its become civilized, with its introduction into his specific spiritual space, into the world of significant meanings and objective forms. But these meanings and forms, as noted by Ortega y Gasset, at some stage of the civilization development can ossify, become empty, lifeless trinkets in a game plan. In this case, spiritual frames of the epoch start press its own vital principle, constrain its shoots and sprouts.
A. Y. Mikitinets
The border as a concept of cultural anthropology
The article is devoted to the value of concept of border in the modern culturology which is considered within the frames of cultural-anthropological researches. In the article it is supposed that the border is an important source of the sense formation which arises in the course of knowledge of cultural distinctions.
Key words: culturology, cultural anthropology, philosophical anthropology, cultural border.
Timeliness. Among various kinds of modern Western culturology the special place is occupied by the concept, called the cultural anthropology, which, at present, is found in the diapason from philosophical anthropology, to the American cultural anthropology, as well as English and French schools of social anthropology. For example, the modern German scholar J. Funk said: "The concept of "cultural anthropology" does not imply neither anthropology as a theory of man, according to the German tradition of the philosophical anthropology, nor <...> normative evolutional cultural concept, which focuses only on the Euro-Western European-educational sphere. ... it seems that it is an ambiguous interpretation of the developed in the Anglo-American region "cultural anthropology" <...>, which is a bond "cultural studies" and Ethnology ".
We note some methodological features of the cultural and anthropological studies: first of all, one should pay its attention to the concept of "borders", which is, in our opinion, one of the fundamental and, that is important, has considerable heuristic potential. To clarify: we are talking about the "boundaries" of culture, taken as the fundamental characteristics of a person. The essence of cultural anthropology in this sense was clearly revealed by A. Kroeber, who asserted: "... we, the people, at least in our affairs and achievements, are the products of our cultures to a much greater extent than we generally recognize" [2, p. 495].
German cultural anthropologist F. Kümel formulates this thought even in a more concrete way: "If you want to perceive a person, one mustn’t try to understand him, as one tried to do it because of the prolonged tradition - apart from the world and within the human society, isolated subject and put out of conduct and services on which they are based on its quality and ability. If anthropology asks about the nature of man, it is no longer refers only to the bordered (my italics – A.M.) inter-mental area. The reality of the human life – is the whole cultural world within the society... "[3, p. 163-164].
G. A. Obrashkevichus
The influence of the socio-cultural interaction
on the issues of identity
The author analyses the topic of identity in the context of influence on it the sociocultural interaction and the intercultural communications. The urgency of the issue of identity, its manysidedness in modern conditions is defined by the social reality which is displayed by the given concept, has started moving, leading to the transformation of views at definition by the individual of cultural identity.
Key words: identity, self-identification, sociocultural interaction, intercultural communications, cultural identity.
Timeliness. The relevance of identity, its versatility in today's conditions is determined by means of that social reality, marked by this concept was set into motion. Fundamental changes have covered almost all forms of public life. Political and economic changes have led to increased interactions and interdependencies representatives from different countries, peoples and cultures. According to scientists, the twentieth century became truly the breakout in the search of identity that marked the formation of a new global informational and identificational space, creating different methods of its investigation.
Certainly, in modern, dynamic, social world, the interaction and cooperation of the objects and events, individuals, ethnic groups, nations and states need to define the new targets of development, it is difficult for them to stay within the once accepted identity. Therefore, in the focus of humanitarian scientific interest, the investigations concerning the identification processes, socio-cultural interactions, motivation and principles "the changes of identity", became currently important which is the purpose of this article. This transformation of social processes leads to a big number of approaches of describing and understanding of social realities interaction and the identity serves as a kind of "prism through which considered, evaluated and studied many of the important features of modern life" [1, p. 176].
Philosophical and cultural, sociological, interdisciplinary approach of studing of modern life of sociocultural interaction is defined as a multidimensional, that consists of multi-level and interdependent components-contexts in which the identity is seen as a philosophical, social, cultural, psychological category, it appears as the category of "interdisciplinary knowledge"  of the cultural and psychological anthropology, sociology, cultural and psychological aspects of understanding in ethnosociology and ethnic psychology, lingo-cultural and social and cultural studies. The emergence of the new accents in the sense of identity are connected with the complexity of social life in modern times and the deepening of the scientific views of man, his interaction with the world.
In the context of the study of the dynamic sociocultural processes in Ukraine and especially in Crimea, the interest of the culturologists is risen by the problem of identity studyings connected with the release of the certain types by the principles of correlation with social groups and cultures – ethnic, national, cultural.
N. N. Kuzmin
Social space and the interaction of cultures
The article is about the sociological characteristics of the cross-cultural interaction. One troves the necessity of application of the concept of the social space for the sociological study of the cultures interaction processes. The facilities of different sociological cognition paradigms for the research of the social space of the cross-cultural interaction are being disclosed.
Key words: cross-cultural interaction, social space.
Timeliness. One of the essential characteristics of the modern is that the essential part of the most of the social and cultural processes become the intercultural interaction (the MAC). For example, the process of globalization is a process of translation, on the one hand, of the values of Western culture, and from the other – the inclusions into the single global social space of elements of other cultures. The first component gets a lot of attention, and the second – much less. However, the examples of the second process are also enough. It can be the inclusion into the mass music culture of African elements. These are migrants and the specific mentality of internationalizational representatives of the global community, the beginning of life and, consequently, the formation of personality which was held in different cultures. Therefore, one of the "hot topics" of the modern sociology is the study of penetration into the existing society of different social elements: groups of migrants with their own values and norms, styles and behaviors, products of mass culture, consumer products and etc.
The researches face with the paradoxes of the terminology. The processes of interaction, mutual influence of social communities, which in the greater extent differ in terms of the style of everyday life, social ideas, normative order in the modern scientific literature they are usually described as the processes MAC (intercultural communication, cross-cultural interaction). Meanwhile, how this interaction will occur is determined by the norms prevailing in the interacting communities, the degree of thier openness and willingness to admit to its ranks representatives of another community, use the elements of sociality of another community, etc. That is, the MAC doesn’t occur in culture, but within a certain social order and the nature of this interaction is also determined by the parameters of a given order.
Therefore the concept of MAC in the form it is used now is quite abstract. However, it has also metaphorical to some extent. The content of the concept leads us to the question: "Can a culture interact?"
О. А. Gabrielyan
The Crimean project through dialogue of cultures
The article concerns some aspects of social, political and culture life in the Autonomous Republic of Crimea. There are three possible projects of Crimea’s transformation: Ukrainian, Crimean-Tatar and Russian
Key words: Ukraine, Crimea, culture, the program of development, projects of Crimea’s transformation.
There is no doubt that Ukrainian project in the XXI century appears to be a complex phenomenon. It should cover not only various aspects of social life and involvement of our country in the context of world’s international processes, but it should also reveal such an important constituent as regional diversity, which greatly influences to modern history. Actually, the project of Ukraine’s development is represented in its Constitution. Still, we may witness the absence of general agreement on this point among the political leaders. This project outlines the status of the Crimea and specifies its future objectives. However, this design is so undefined/vague, that there arises necessity to go into details of this regional project and shape its constituents precisely. The Crimean project is vital for Ukraine.
This may be the reason for the President V. F. Yanukovich to proclaim this project as national: “The Crimea is a pearl of Ukraine”. This slogan could have remained a bright metaphor unless it hadn’t been supported by a number of implementing activities. The government of the Crimea has elaborated the strategy of the Crimea’s development till the year 2020 with particular programs, focusing on various problematic issues. One of the most important points to stress is that the instruments for the realization of these programs were also designed (staff assessment is being conducted) involving not only the resources of the Autonomous Republic of the Crimea, but also national ones . Moreover, current regional power upholds its special status in the central (part of the country) that could help to implement the designed strategy. This also applies to re-subordination of the state broadcasting company “Krym” to the government of the Crimea and optimization of administration by eliminating duplicating institutions, i.e. offices of central authorities/administration that had been established in the period of separatist activities on the Peninsula. Everything listed above fits into the logic of common sense and the basics of management.
There can arise a question: why this hasn’t been done before? The reason is that the region itself, its population, political leaders and central authorities, as well as inner and outer/external conditions were not ready/prepared for such transformations. In this sense, the Crimea has a chance to become successful national project, which necessity has been foregrounded during the last 5 years.
History of Crimea’s reclamation can reveal a lot. At least it can to a certain extent clearly predict the perspectives that Ukraine and the Crimea will face in the near future. The retrospective reference has also a pragmatic goal. The defined/fixed points of history can help to design the schedule/diagram/ perspectives for the future development of the Crimea. Prognostication is one of the integral parts of a science. Apparently, it is much more difficult to prognosticate in social sphere than in exact and natural sciences. Still, probabilistic/stochastic nature of prognostication in social sphere does not eliminate its objectiveness and significance.
V. S. Romadykіna
Metatext of culture in the context of artistic consciousness.
Axiological aspect of the problem
Metatext considered as one of the ways of constructing culture and creation of the reality on the example of the works of art. The world is depicted as value semantic sphere of life, which takes axiological status in the context of artistic consciousness. Psychological features of metatextual comprehension of culture were identified through the system of values and features if intercultural dialogue.
Key words: metatext, culture, artistic consciousness, intercultural dialogue.
Rationale. The end of the twentieth, and the beginning of the twenty-first century, radically changed the traditional understanding of the principles of social life and human society. The desire to tell something new forced philosophers, writers, artists, scientists to seek the necessary forms of expression, using all the opportunities inherent in the structure of being that appears in philosophical thought as a concept of the system of the intelligent and imaginative introductions (irrationalism) and a text as the whole (modern postmodernism).
In this regard, there appears a need of seeking like traditional ideas about life and new intellectual structures, including the category "metatext" which leads to its involvement to the analysis not only concerning art, but also social and cultural text.
The modern stage of development of culture creates "the metakultural space" and "metakultural personality" that go beyond the generally accepted perception of the world and ordinary behavior. The speed and complexity of the processes taking place in the world requires a fundamentally new ways orientations in effect, "acquirement" of it by a man.
As we believe that at the modern stage in different cultural contexts of culture, in its diverse modes of: forms of literature, art, works of art, one of the top positions is obtained by a metatext as an integrative manner of creation and learning of culture in the context of socially-philosophical ontology.
The problem of being that we understand like human organized area in reality, can be seen in a various contexts: scientific and philosophical, by means of that, acquiring different meanings. In the most general philosophical terms, it can be formulated as the problem of ontological problem of reality and values, the relationship between human values and making life as culture.
The world of culture is a real human environment, its existence is a unity of meanings and things, because of which, arise subjective personal values. With the understanding of life not just as a physical objective, but also like a world culture (and culture like text), or, the same, the world of values – values become your ontological status.
O. I. Mikitinets
Chronotope characteristics of the symbolical space of culture
The article concerns the asymmetric of physical and text reality. The features of symbolic time and space in the research are determined. Ontology of culture is semantic reality with the special organization of chronotope, where space and time are the basis of it organization and existence. It is shown, that with help of time and space not only cultural memory is saved but also created future life of culture is created.
Key words: text of culture, time, space, chronotope, discourse.
Timeliness. The rationale of the article is determined by the need of understanding the symbolic reality of culture in the space-temporal context. People have always lived in the culture and the culture, creating a special value-semantic universe, but only in modern epoch, culture has moved beyond the purely epistemological problems and now it is understood, in most cases, as a life mission, as the meaning of human existence, as the value orientation in the spirits ¬ creative activity as the basis of identity. Culture is increasingly seen as a dialogue, carried out in space and time - the intergenerational dialogue, the dialogue of different cultures, the dialogue between a writer and a recipient of a cultural text in a society of ethnic and religious pluralism. The fundamental dialogic of culture is directly related with the text interpretation. The epoch of postmodern has forced to take another look at the phenomenon of text in the light of which there was considered any phenomenon, whether it was the world or culture. However, the last meaning made a certain ambiguity and innuendo. The post modernist paradigm of the approach to the written reality implies a perfect freedom of further interpretations of the text of culture, which is ontologically excluded from the space-time relations, but in fact it is not. It is created by a particular person, brimming with life the author's world by the particular historical epoch, being originally loaded with space-temporal characteristics. Therefore we can not ignore the obvious ambiguity, incompleteness, or, on the contrary, redundancy. Ontology can not be fully reproduced, but it has the potential to kept within the text an interpreter.
The purpose of this paper is to identify the specific temporal and spatial characteristics of the symbolic reality of culture. The object of this article – texts of culture. The subject of the study – the space-temporal characteristics of the cultural texts.
S. P. Shendrikova
Crimean period and its role in the formation of the great Russian actress Maria Nikolaevna Yermolova
This article concerns the numerous arrivals to the multiple guest performances around the Southern Coast of Crimea of Maria Yermolova, an outstanding Russian actress.
Key words: drama actress, repertory, leading roles, benefit performance, dramatics to.
Timeliness. 2011 – is the anniversary for Simferopol. One of the oldest theaters in Ukraine – Crimean Academic Russian dramatic theatre of M. Gorky turns 100 years old. This is not only a glorious page in the history of art of the peninsula.
To the origins of the Crimean theater are involved such great masters of the stage as M. Shepkin, G. Fedotov, P. Orlenev and others. Mariya Nikolaevna Yermolova didn’t perform on the stage of the Crimean theatre, but in her life, our peninsula left a bright trail. Not many Crimeans know that the greate Russian actress has been to the Crimea a lot of times, she loved it and wanted to move here.
The purpose of this scientific publications – to show, by means of real material, the periods of Mariya Nikolaevna Ermolova staying in Crimea. The objectives of the article are: the analysis of the evolution of the actress M.N. Yermolova, the characteristics of the periods of her works, consideration of the contribution to Russian culture and the impact of Crimea on the work of the actress.
At different times, S. Durylin (published a series of papers on the work of Ermolovoy in the Small Theatre), A. Brodsky (published a number of articles on stage images of the actress), M. Malki (engaged in research on the life of the actress) paid attention to the life and works of M. Ermoova. Crimean travels of Yermolova are lit episodically, probably because they were private. In this regard, modern historians, local historians and cultural scientists have the opportunity to open the unknown pages of the history.
Maria Ermolova was born on July 3 (15), 1853 in the family of the prompter of the Maly Theatre, the author of several plays of Nikolai Ermolova [1, p. 675]. Little Masha grew up in a theatrical environment. Names of great actors of the XIX century, such as Mochalova and Shchepkina were pronounced in her family with the special reverence. All the children of Nikolai Ermolova (four sons and two daughters), as well as himself, were loyal servants of the temple of Melpomene. However, nobody could challenge Mariya in the scenic talents.
Since three years Masha often visited the "Shchepkin’s House” 'father took her to the plays to the theater. And there, from the prompter's box of his father, the little girl saw the stage play and skills of the greatest actors of the illustrious troupe of the Maly Theatre: P. Sadowski, S. Shymskoi, G.I. Samarin, Mr. Fedotov.
The phenomenon of degeneracy as significant aspect of axiomatic anthropological crisis of modern techno genic society
The article is about the analysis of the revival phenomenon (XX–XXI), which is relevant in the sociocultural sphere. This phenomenon is considered in the context of global axiomatic anthropological and cultural crisis of the modern technological civilization.
Key words: anthropological crisis, socio-cultural sphere, values, art, phenomenon, degeneracy, negative, and destruction.
Background and relevance of the study. By the beginning of the XXI century humanity was in a situation of global anthropological crisis with all the negative consequences. Anthropological crisis with its multivariate nature is a phenomenon of the modern world. It has affected all areas of life and is characterized by a highly expressed dynamism. But the man, standing on the upward vector of the development of the global systemic crisis, having acknowledged the fact of the profound spiritual, moral, ecological, social and cultural, economic and financial decline, still hasn't realized the danger of the existing situation. Axiomatic anthropological aspect of modern global culture crisis remains out of interest among leading European philosophers so far.
«The modern world is in anticipation of technological ecological apocalypse and anxious confusion regarding its immediate future. Numerous predictions about the future mainly have the pessimistic character» [1, p. 119]. Thus, the situation of deep antpropological crisis requires humanity to develop adequate strategies of survival not only as a species, but also as a spiritual being. The modern humanity has come to the dangerous border, that calls upon the necessary formation of a new cultural paradigm based on the classical ideals, norms and values which is capable of confronting the challenges of technological civilization and facilitate the improvement of humanity, to create conditions for the full disclosure of its essential characteristics as a unique multivariate human being.
We are not going to enumerate main characteristics of anthropological crisis in this article, which have become the main feature in socio-historical development of techno genic society. (This is a separate survey.) But here it is important that every aspect of the multi-dimensional by its nature anthropological crisis of modern techno genic society with a single socio-cultural source, that is value system of new European civilization, has become a reality exactly in the XX century.
Movement as a method of artistic synthesis and its representation
in the works of the Silver Age
In the article it is reached the morphology of motion as the reception of artistic synthesis. The fixed assets and methods are studied the realisation of motion, used the famous creators of art of Silver age.
Key words: Morphology of motion, artistic synthesis, Silver age.
Timeliness. Outstanding art creators of Silver Age associated the development of the culture with dialogue arts like music and poetry, architecture and painting, theatre and dance. The idea of synthesis of the arts was not just a basic one for the creators of this unique period of culture. It was unifying, programmatic, repeatedly reinforcing their overall contribution to the development of world culture. Synthesis of music, words and actions are not only enriched the creative palette of artists of this era, but also guided the theoretical thinking on research of synthesis values among artists. In particular, A. White in his lecture, "Future art", noted «…art forms merge into each other; the desire for synthesis is expressed not in the destruction of the borders that divide the two adjacent forms of art; the desire for fusion is expressed in attempts to locate these forms around one of the forms adopted the centre. Thus, music dominance over the other forms of art appears. So there is a commitment to the mystery as to the synthesis of all possible forms » .
Silver Age as a stage of culture genesis, taken in all its diversity, is a cultural phenomenon and, in a particular sense, it is the system of principles, views and artistic techniques. «The generation of new processes and systems of cultural phenomena occur permanently. And we need to know the mechanics of genesis of new cultural phenomena and their integration into existing cultural systems, the source of its natural process…» [13, p. 5].
Extraordinary important feature of synthesis of the arts is marked in this project. «The improvisation nature of synthesis of the arts is based on any kind of creativity, is constantly evolving evolutionary process of generating new ideas in science, culture and education. This situation is considered as an effective method that allows the introduction of synthesis of the arts into the artistic education » [11, p. 7].
Presentation of the synthesis of the arts as a straight connection, the combination of different types and areas, despite the apparent legality of such method and successful well-known implementations are described not so «tiny». The main thing in synthesis of the arts, from the author's point of view, is production effect of artist's achievement in aggregate synthetic characters designatum in the process of semiosis. Marks in the works of art are assumed as specific objects (methods) used by the author.
Etnochoreological research of traditional folk dance ethnic culture of Bulgarians in Ukraine
The article analyses the current state of the study and preservation of traditional folk dance of ethnic culture of Bulgarians of Ukraine in the context of modern trends of development of Ukrainian ethnology and etnohoreology.
Key words: dance ethno culture of Bulgarians, the Bulgarians of Ukraine, etnohoreolohiya, and dance folklore, Bulgarian dance.
Timeliness. At the beginning of the XXI century there is the global process of cultural evolution, which is accompanied by a complex interplay of innovation and traditions in all areas of world culture and art study, which leads to a new understanding of aesthetic paradigms through the knowledge of the cultural achievements of the past and present times. Notable place takes increasingly growing interest in the study, conservation, vocational rehabilitation and interpretation of prehistoric Archaic, authentic materials, components of medieval culture and ethnic and cultural traditions, passion for folk art and folklore. It should be emphasized that the process of colourful comprehension of authentic folklore from the secondary to the representation of style genre reorientation, invariance and high quality modification, organic synthesis of several opposite genres and styles, or the traditional cultures, and so on take place in this process. Numerous international and regional ethno festivals ("Dreamland"), dedicated to the interpretation and representation of various traditional cultures in the professional and amateur art, folk festivals ("Yzvor") are examples of revival and preservation of ethnic and cultural heritage of their ancestors and the development of national traditions in modern society and so on.
Modern Ukraine is a multinational state, full of numerous various ethnic traditions with brightly highlighted subcultural characteristics and experience of peaceful coexistence with its neighbours. A characteristic feature of the modern spiritual life is the focus of the regional national and cultural issues, including efforts to recreate the forgotten cultural practices, forms of entertainment and their own mentality.
The traditional culture of Ukrainian peoples, including Bulgarian, is a complex and original phenomenon. Its roots go back thousands of years in deep and specific national features conditioned by the historical relationship with neighbouring states and long-term struggle for independence, which is the national symbol of freedom, spirituality and self-sufficiency. In the beginning of the ХХІ century, although it exists in transformed state, but is characterized by active operation in passive consumer form of existence and relatively stable ethnic components, learning and fixing that require thorough and comprehensive complex research involving modern technical which led to the relevance of the study.
R. A. Blizniakov, D. A. Malyshev
Storage problems of fund collections of Crimean antiquities museums
The article concerns the terms of storage of funds of museums of ancient of the Crimea in a pre-revolution period. That direction is refreshed in museums activity of Feodosia, Kerch, Simferopol and Sevastopol. The problems of funds working are regarded in detail. It's used archive and documents from museums funds in the article.
Key words: archaeology of the Crimea, material culture of the Crimea, museum of antiquity of the Crimea, museums funds.
Timeliness. One of the main tasks of the historical and archaeological museums profile is the preservation of the values for transmission to the next generation. Museums of Antiquities of the Crimea of the pre-revolutionary period tried to carry out their task. However, various circumstances, both external and internal, are not always contributed to the execution of the mission.
The purpose of this article is to analyse the problems of storage repository collections of museums of Antiquities of the Crimea in the pre-revolutionary period. The following tasks are required to achieve this goal. The first one is to investigate the storage of museum collections in different cities of the Crimea, the specifics of the stock during this period, an analysis of archival materials, the individual exhibits.
Theodosia Museum of Antiquities (FMA) was placed in the old Turkish mosque in 1811, of course, it could not create the conditions for a proper storage of available items, and it just kept records. The first inventory of FMA was compiled just in 181. . The following inventory was made by P. I. Koeppen in 1827. It was pretty much the same as the previous one; it recorded just a few new exhibits. I. F. de Villeneuve, the director of FMA, made the third inventory only in 1850. The inventory caused a complete agreement among the members of Odessa Society of History and Antiquities (OSHA). 8 years later, new inventory was made and there were registered more than a hundred pieces of stone, clay, dozens of metal, as well as 331 coins [9, p. 23].
Scientific handling of FMA funds began only after its transferring to the jurisdiction of OSHA in 1850. N. N. Murzakevich, who visited Theodosia in 1864, wrote about what measures should be taken for better funds preservation: «… such antiquity that can be kept with no harm outdoors should be placed in the yard, <…> inside the walls of the museum should be made stone benches 1 yard height, ¾ a yard width, they place the line, the other set into the walls, if it is possible, in the middle of the museum to install marble column with a Greek inscription, around its to place a round table, <…> to have two boxes under the windows and walls for storage of coins accepted by the system » .
M. V. Somov
Analysis of communication in the museum’s sphere in the context of a systematic-structural approach
The article concerns the problems of communication in a museum sphere. System-structural approach of cognition of museum communication is analysed. Questions, related to the modernization of communication are studied.
Key words: museum, communication, and modernization of communication.
Timeliness. Issues related to communication policy of museums as social institutions that are highly relevant in the modern humanitarian science. Communication is an essential element in the modern museum institutions; it allows the state to talk about the level of their development. In general, the issues related to the problems of communication in the museum field, raised in the general museum study writings of following authors V. Gluzinskiy, M. Gnedovskiy, D. Cameron, D. Porter, I. Romeder, I. Starikova, R. Strong, T. Yureneva and others. However, it should be noted that problems in the functioning of museums with a communicational point of view in the Ukrainian Culture and Art are hardly studied. Problems of museum facilities cognition as elements of information space are almost unexplored. It is very obvious that the issues of effective functioning of the museum sector in accordance with the needs of the XXI century depend on a comprehensive, systematic analysis of the aspects mentioned above (for example, the problems associated with the modernization of communication), a mobile information management system and museums.
The main purpose of this article is analysis of the performance of communication functioning in the field of museum. To achieve this goal it is necessary to implement the following objectives, to determine the characteristics of communication in museums, to identify problems in the communication functioning between museum institutions and society. Special attention is to be paid to the analysis of communication in museums in terms of modernization, connected with the development of modern information technologies.
The analysis of communication in the field of museum will be applied using the information "model of interaction." It’s common knowledge that other research models are tested in the communication theory such as the "impact model", "dialogue model", "consulting model" and many others. For a comprehensive study of information and communication interactions in the field of museum, in author’s opinion, the best thing is to use a systematic structural approach.
As part of a systematic and structural approach implied studying of communication of museums as social institutions at the following levels institutional, technological, social, which structure communication, and the modernization that give it a new quality.
E. E. Osmanov
Problems in the study of religious buildings in Bakhchisaray at the end of ХVIII and at the beginning of ХХ centuries
In this article we analysed the condition of main cult architectural and historical monuments of Bakhchisaray in the period ХVIII–ХХ c. We examined changes which were as with Islam monuments –masoleums-durbe and mosques so with Christian – Uspensky Cathedral and Jewish – Karaimskaya Kenasa.
Key words: mausoleum-durbe, mosque, Holy Assumption monastery.
Timeliness. There are numerous public buildings and places of worship such as domed tombs, mausoleums durbe, mosques, temples, Karaimskaya kenasas in Bakhchisarai, the former capital of the Crimean Khans.
There is no doubt; they underwent changes, some of them turned into ruins. Among them were the mausoleums Eski Yurt, date ХV–ХVI centuries. Before there was Sufi religious centre with more recent graves, Aziz ("holy"), that got its name from Melek-Aziz Ashtera.
The object of the study is religious building of the city of Bakhchisaray.
The subject of the study is the changes that occurred with the religious buildings during the period when the Crimea belonged to the Russian Empire.
The purpose of this article is to analyse and evaluate the changes that occurred with the religious buildings of Bakhchisaray.
The Aziz area was covered with beautiful tombs, but just a few mausoleums-durbe survived. These monuments survived because they were built from hewn stone, and, as they represented the outstanding architectural structures, more or less they were maintained. Durbe were erected over the graves of the Khans, Beys and their families [1, p. 24]. According to Islamic architecture traditions these tombs are square and eight sided in terms of structure, covered with a dome. The nature of these monumental structures corresponded to the religious ideology of Islam, "the real life of perishable and a future life is eternal" [2, p. 22]. Lead lining and part of the eaves, and the floor, windows, and even some parts of the main mausoleum are in the mausoleum of Sultan Bey-Jude, which was located three hundred meters to the east of the Khan's palace, demanded fixes, as well as the corresponding parts in two others. The particular attention should be paid for the windows from the main monument of white marble, which still preserved in some parts of it. [3, p. 44-45].
Other religious places such as mosques were changed. For example, Tahtalı-Jami mosque, in the parish of Osman Aga (modern street Rosa Luxemburg). The parishioners rebuilt the mosque in 1885, however, without the permission of the provincial authorities, therefore, that’s why the details are unknown [4, p. 5].
Cave cities of Crimea as an object of study and protection of historical and cultural heritage
Among the popular local history literature about the Crimea, the “Sketches of the Crimea” by Yevgeniy Lvovich Markov are distinguished. In this article the author concerns the preservation of cave towns of the Crimea in the second half of the XIX century.
Key words: cave cities of the Crimea, cultural heritage, protection of monuments.
Timeliness. Currently, the interest to poorly known pages of Crimean history has increased. Analysis of the creative heritage of local lore popularizes, among whom a prominent place was occupied by Eugene Markov (1835-1903) , will help to display the process of the original study of the historical and cultural heritage of this territory in the second part of XIX century. Considerable interest among visitors was caused by "cave cities of Crimea which are highly interesting monuments of antiquity"[2, p. 369]. More detailed information about its integrity is contained in the "Sketches of the Crimea", published by E.L. Markov in 1872 as a book . Over the next thirty years the work was reprinted three times in 1884 , 1902 , 1911. .
The aim of the research is to study the popularized works of EL Markov, which will help to add and systematize information about the study and protection of historical monuments and the Crimean culture in the second part of XIX century.
The creative heritage of the student of local lore was almost in complete oblivion; therefore it has not been fully studied. Certain aspects of this topic are displayed in the historiography [6-11].
There are some monuments of historical and cultural heritage that belong to the Karaites, they are Chufut-Kale and Manhup-Kale, interior and exterior cave cities, surrounded by walls with towers [2, p. 411]. Chufut-Kale is the major attraction of Bakhchisarai. It is mentioned in some sources from the first quarter of the XIV century under the name of Kyrkora (in various distortions – Kyrkor, Corkery, Kirkiel). Before the Crimean War, it was inhabited place, and after its completion, it fell into disrepair. In the 70th of XIX century there was remained the only family of Karaite-Rabbi A. Firkovich. Before the Crimea attaching to the Russian Empire there lived up to 300 families of the Karaites in Manhup-Kale. In 1783, the number decreased to 70 families, and in 1791 they all left the cave city [2, p. 391].
E. L. Markov attributed the time of the Chufut-Kale foundation to Biblical times, and the "the discovery of the epitaph of the first decade of our era on Chufut-Kale cemetery by Firkowich makes certain that the Karaites were living there before BC <...> A number of ancient monuments that are paved in a gully which is called Jehoshaphat valley confirms this fact "[2, p. 412]. According to the author, in the secondpart of the XIX century "there were few remarkable remains in Chufut-Kale" "with sprinkled walls, towers and houses".. <…>.